* See ::/Doc/CompilerOverview.DD. * See Scoping and Linkage for details on extern, import, _extern, _import, etc. * Built-in types include I0,I8,I16,I32,I64 for signed 0-8 byte ints and U0,U8,U1 6,U32,U64 for unsigned 0-8 byte ints and F64 for 8 byte floats. U0 void, but ZERO size! I8 char U8 unsigned char I16 short U16 unsigned short I32 int U32 unsigned int I64 long (64-bit) U64 unsigned long (64-bit) F64 double no F32 float. * Function with no args, or just default args can be called without parentheses. >Dir("*"); >Dir(); >Dir; * Default args don't have to be on the end. This code is valid: U0 Test(I64 i=4,I64 j,I64 k=5) { Print("%X %X %X\n",i,j,k); } Test(,3); * A char const all alone is sent to PutChars(). A string with or without args is sent to Print(). An empty string literal signals a variable fmt_str follows. void DemoC(char drv,char *fmt,char *name,int age) { printf("Hello World!\n"); printf("%s age %d\n",name,age); printf(fmt,name,age); putchar(drv); putchar('*'); } U0 DemoHolyC(U8 drv,U8 *fmt,U8 *name,I64 age) { "Hello World!\n"; "%s age %d\n",name,age; "" fmt,name,age; '' drv; '*'; } * When dealing with function addresses such as for callbacks, precede the name with "&". * Type casting is postfix. To typecast int or F64, use ToI64(), ToBool() or ToF64(). (TempleOS follows normal C float<-->int conversion, but sometimes you want to override. These functions are better than multiplying by "1.0" to convert to float.) * There is no main() function. Any code outside of functions gets executed upon start-up, in order. * There are no bit fields, but there are bit access routines and you can access bytes or words within any int. See I64 declaration. A class can be accessed as a whole are subints, if you put a type in front of the class declaration. public I64i union I64 //"I64i" is intrinsic. We are defining "I64". { I8i i8[8]; U8i u8[8]; I16 i16[4]; U16 u16[4]; I32 i32[2]; U32 u32[2]; }; I64 i=0x123456780000DEF0; i.u16[1]=0x9ABC; * Variable arg count functions (...) can access their args with built-in variables similar to 'this' in C++. They are 'I64 argc' and 'I64 argv[]'. I64 AddNums(...) { I64 i,res=0; for (i=0;i<argc;i++) res+=argv[i]; return res; } >AddNums(1,2,3); ans=6 public U0 GrPrint(CDC *dc,I64 x,I64 y,U8 *fmt,...) { U8 *buf=StrPrintJoin(NULL,fmt,argc,argv);//SPrintF() with MAlloc()ed string. GrPutS(dc,x,y,buf); //Plot string at x,y pixels. GrPutS is not public. Free(buf); } ... GrPrint(gr.dc,(GR_WIDTH-10*FONT_WIDTH)>>1,(GR_HEIGHT-FONT_HEIGHT)>>1, "Score:%4d",score); //Print score in the center of the scrn. ... * Allows "5<i<j+1<20" instead of "5<i && i<j+1 && j+1<20". if (13<=age<20) "Teen-ager"; * if you know a switch stmt will not exceed the lowest or highest case values. switch [] is a little faster because it doesn't check. * switch stmts always use a jump table. Don't use them with cases with really big, sparse ranges. * Allows ranges like "case 4...7:" in switch stmts. * A no case number causes next higher int case in switch stmts. See ::/Demo/NullCase.HC. I64 i; for (i=0;i<20;i++) switch (i) { case: "Zero\n"; break; //Starts at zero case: "One\n"; break; //One plus prev case. case: "Two\n"; break; case: "Three\n"; break; case 10: "Ten\n"; break; case: "Eleven\n"; break; //One plus prev case. } * Switch statements can be nestled with a single switch expression! This is known as a "sub_switch" statement. start/end are used to group cases. Don't goto out of, throw an exception out of, or return out of the start front porch area. See ::/Demo/SubSwitch.HC. I64 i; for (i=0;i<10;i++) switch (i) { case 0: "Zero "; break; case 2: "Two "; break; case 4: "Four "; break; start: "["; case 1: "One"; break; case 3: "Three";break; case 5: "Five"; break; end: "] "; break; } OutPut: >Zero [One] Two [Three] Four [Five] * A no_warn stmt will suppress an unused var warning. * You can have multiple member vars of a class named "pad" or "reserved", and it won't issue warnings. * noreg or reg can be placed before a function local var name. You can, optionally, specify a reg after the reg keyword. U0 Main() { //Only use REGG_LOCAL_VARS or REGG_LOCAL_NON_PTR_VARS for reg vars or else clobbered. I64 reg R15 i=5, noreg j=4; no_warn i; asm { MOV RAX,R15 CALL &PUT_HEX_U64 MOV RAX,'\n' CALL &PUT_CHARS MOV RAX,U64 &j[RBP] CALL &PUT_HEX_U64 MOV RAX,'\n' CALL &PUT_CHARS } } * interrupt, haserrcode, public, argpop or noargpop are function flags. See IRQKbd(). * A single quote can encompass multiple characters. 'ABC' is equ to 0x434241. PutChars() takes multiple characters. asm { HELLO_WORLD:: PUSH RBP MOV RBP,RSP MOV RAX,'Hello ' CALL &PUT_CHARS MOV RAX,'World\n' CALL &PUT_CHARS LEAVE RET } Call(HELLO_WORLD); PutChars('Hello '); PutChars('World\n'); * The "`" operator raises a base to a power. * There is no question-colon operator. * TempleOS operator precedence `,>>,<< *,/,% & ^ | +,- <,>,<=,>= ==,!= && ^^ || =,<<=,>>=,*=,/=,&=,|=,^=,+=,-= * You can use Option(OPTf_WARN_PAREN,ON) to find unnecessary parentheses in code. * You can use Option(OPTf_WARN_DUP_TYPES,ON) to find dup local var type stmts. * With the #exe{} feature in your src code, you can place programs that insert text into the stream of code being compiled. See #exe {} for an example where the date/time and compile-time prompting for cfguration data is placed into a program. StreamPrint() places text into a src program stream following the conclusion of the #exe{} blk. * No #define functions exist (I'm not a fan) * No typedef, use class. * No type-checking * Can't use <> with #include, use "". * "$" is an escape character. Two dollar signs signify an ordinary $. See DolDoc. In asm or HolyC code, it also refers to the inst's address or the offset in a class definition. * union is more like a class, so you don't reference it with a union label after you define it. Some common unions are declared in KernelA.HH for 1,2,4 and 8 byte objects. If you place a type in front of a union declaration, that is the type when used by itself. See ::/Demo/SubIntAccess.HC. * class member vars can have meta data. format and data are two meta data types now used. All compiler structures are saved and you can access the compiler's info about classes and vars. See ::/Demo/ClassMeta.HC and DocForm(). * There is a keyword lastclass you use as a dft arg. It is set to the class name of the prev arg. See ::/Demo/LastClass.HC, ClassRep(), DocForm() and ::/Demo/Dsk/BlkDevRep.HC. * See ::/Demo/Exceptions.HC. try{} catch{} and throw are different from C++. th row is a function with an 8-byte or less char arg. The char string passed in th row() can be accessed from within a catch{} using the Fs->except_ch. Within a c atch {} blk, set the var Fs->catch_except to TRUE if you want to terminate the search for a hndlr. Use PutExcept() as a hndlr, if you like. * A function is available similar to sizeof which provides the offset of a member of a class. It's called offset. You place the class name and member inside as in offset(classname.membername). It has nothing to do with 16-bit code. Both sizeof and offset only accept one level of member vars. That is, you can't do sizeof(classname.membername.submembername). * There is no continue stmt. Use goto. * lock{} can be used to apply asm LOCK prefixes to code for safe multicore read-modify-write accesses. The code bracked with have LOCK asm prefix's applied to relevant insts within. It's a little shoddy. See ::/Demo/MultiCore/Lock.HC. * There is a function called MSize() which gives the size of an object alloced off the heap. For larger size allocations, the system rounds-up to a power of two, so MSize() lets you know the real size and you can take full advantage of it. * You CAN Free() a NULL ptr. Useful variants of MAlloc() can be found Here. Each task has a heap and you can MAlloc and Free off-of other task's heaps, or make an independent heap with HeapCtrlInit(). See HeapLog() for an example. * The stk does not grow because virtual mem is not used. I recommend allocating large local vars from the heap. You can change MEM_DFT_STK and recompile Kernel or request more when doing a Spawn(). You can use CallStkGrow(), but it's odd. See ::/Demo/StkGrow.HC. * Only one base class is allowed. * printf() has new codes. See Print("") Fmt Strings. * All values are extended to 64-bit when accessed. Intermediate calculations are done with 64-bit values. U0 Main() { I16 i1; I32 j1; j1=i1=0x12345678; //Resulting i1 is 0x5678 but j1 is 0x12345678 I64 i2=0x8000000000000000; Print("%X\n",i2>>1); //Res is 0xC000000000000000 as expected U64 u3=0x8000000000000000; Print("%X\n",u3>>1); //Res is 0x4000000000000000 as expected I32 i4=0x80000000; //const is loaded into a 64-bit reg var. Print("%X\n",i4>>1); //Res is 0x40000000 I32 i5=-0x80000000; Print("%X\n",i5>>1); //Res is 0xFFFFFFFFC0000000 }